Sproch

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Zwoa Deandln untahoidn si mid ana Gebeadnsproch

A Sproch is a komplexes System zua Kommunikation. Es is a System vo Elementn und Regln, de wo dena Midgliedan vo ana Sprochgmoa ois Vastendigung deana.

Es gibt eppa 5.000 - 7.000 Oanzlsprochn (ois Lautsprochn). Des ko aloan deswegn scho ned exakt quantifiziad wean, wei de Untascheidung zwischen Dochsproch und Dialekt oft a Definitionsfrog is und vo bolidischn und andan Umstend obhengt.

Ba de Oanzlsprochn untascheidd ma zwischn natialichn und konstruiadn Sprochn. Natialiche Sproch san im Laf vo da Zeid vo aloan entstandn, wia zan Beispui Boarisch oda Englisch. Konstruiade Sprochn san vo Menschn plant worn, wia beispuisweis Esperanto oda Klingonisch. Plansprochn nennt ma konstruiade Sprochn, de wo da zwischnmenschlichn Kommunikation deana.

Za de konstruiadn Sprochn ghean aa de formain Sprochn, wia zan Beispui de Programmiasprochn.

Weidas ko ma zwischn Lautsprochn und Gebeadnsprochn (Keapasproch) untascheidn.

Linguistik[VE | Weakln]

De Wissnschoft, de wo si mid da Sproch befosst, hoasst ma Linguistik oda Sprochwissnschoft. Es gibt an Hafa Teigebiedt vo da Sprochwissnschoft, de wichtigstn san:

  • Oigmoane Linguistik
  • Ogwandte Linguistik
  • Vagleichade Linguistik
  • Historische Linguistik

Struktua[VE | Weakln]

Wann ma Sproch ois symbolische Vastendigung (Kommunikation) affosst, nacha brauchts drei Sochan: Zoachn, Bedeitunga und an Schlissl (Kod, Code), dea wo de Zoachn mid de Bedeitunga vabindt.

Semantik[VE | Weakln]

Sproch vabindt Zoachn mid ana Bedeitung. Des gschiacht afgrund vo ana soziain Konvention und ned afgrund vo ana niatiali gebanan Bedeitung. Säichane Zoachn kina Laudt, Grafikn (Buachstobn), Buidl oda Gestn sei.

Phonologie und Schrift[VE | Weakln]

Sproch ko af a System vo Lautn (Red), Gestn (Gebeadnsproch) oda Grafikn (Schrift) afbaun.

De Sproch vo de Viacha[VE | Weakln]

Vo Viachasproch redd ma, wann de Vastendigung zwischn Viachan Ehnlichkeitn mid da menschlichn Sproch afweist. Es gibt oba koa Viachasproch, de wo eppa so komplex is ois wia de Menschnsprochn. Wann de Vastendigung vo de Viacha iba ogeborans Vahoidn (Instinkt) oblafft, redd ma in da Regl ned vo ana Sproch.

Ob ma ba Viachan ibahapts vo ana Sproch redn ko, is umstriddn. Foascha wia da Linguist Charles Hockett moana, dass ma den Menschnsprochn ned mid da Vastendigung unta de Viacha vagleicha kunnt, wei de Komplexitet und Grundprinzipien ned vagleichbor waradn.[1] Da Linguist Thomas A. Sebeok hod deswegn fiagschlogn, dass ma ba da Vastendigung zwischn de Viacha ned vo ana Sproch redn soit.[2]

Andane Foascha wia da Marc Hauser, da Noam Chomsky und da W. Tecumseh Fitch segn a evolutioneare Kontinuitet zwischn da Viachasproch und da Menschnsproch.[3]

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Beleg[VE | Weakln]

  1. Hockett, Charles F.: Logical considerations in the study of animal communication. In: Animals sounds and animal communication, S. 392–430, American Institute of Biological Sciences 1960
  2. Martinelli, Dario (2010). "Introduction to Zoosemiotics". Biosemiotics 5: 1–64. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9249-6_1. 
  3. Hauser, Marc D. (22 November 2002). "The Faculty of Language: What Is It, Who Has It, and How Did It Evolve?". . American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1569–1579. http://www.chomsky.info/articles/20021122.pdf. Retrieved on 28 March 2014. "We argue that an understanding of the faculty of language requires substantial interdisciplinary cooperation. We suggest how current developments in linguistics can be profitably wedded to work in evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, and neuroscience. We submit that a distinction should be made between the faculty of language in the broad sense (FLB)and in the narrow sense (FLN). FLB includes a sensory-motor system, a conceptual-intentional system, and the computational mechanisms for recursion, providing the capacity to generate an infinite range of expressions from a finite set of elements. We hypothesize that FLN only includes recursion and is the only uniquely human component of the faculty of language. We further argue that FLN may have evolved for reasons other than language, hence comparative studies might look for evidence of such computations outside of the domain of communication (for example, number, navigation, and social relations)."